Silicon wafer supply and demand ratio imbalance

The dilemma of silicon wafer supply and demand imbalance has not yet found an effective balance method, and manufacturers will inevitably withdraw. Silicon chips are still the main target for maintaining cost operations, but the situation with upstream chips is relatively stable. Demand in the end market continues to heat up, perhaps giving the battery and component manufacturers a glimmer of hope. As the Chinese government’s policy directives are expected to push the market warmer, the already weak demand has gradually stabilized. I believe that in the next few weeks, this will be a getting better momentum.


This week, only the price of overseas monocrystalline silicon wafers was driven by demand. Polysilicon wafer manufacturers have made price stability a major indicator and are no longer sold at prices below the cost of cash. Regarding utilization, regardless of single polysilicon, first-line manufacturers still have a large advantage, and small and medium-sized factories are more difficult under the double squeeze of price and capacity. At present, domestic monocrystalline prices remain at 3~3.10RMB / Pc, polycrystalline prices remain at 2.07~2.15RMB / Pc, and black silicon product prices remain unchanged at 2.2RMB / Pc. The single crystal in the overseas market is maintained at 0.38~0.390USD / Pc, the polycrystalline price is maintained at 0.254~0.269USD / Pc, and the price of black silicon product is slightly decreased to 0.305USD / Pc.

Silicon material

This week, silicon material prices are still running at low levels. Compared with second- and third-line small factories, first-line factories can slightly support prices. The newly opened low-cost production line has not yet reached full mass production, so there is a certain difference in supply and demand of cost calculation, which indirectly affects downstream purchase intention and price acceptance. After the low-cost production line is opened and the high-cost production line exits, it is estimated that the cost perception of the buyer and the seller will be the same, but the demand side still has the final price decision, because if there is no strong demand, the price is lower. To no avail. At present, the price of domestic polycrystalline materials is 73~82 yuan/KG, the average price is reduced to 75RMB / KG, the price of single crystal materials is 80~84RMB / KG, and the average price is reduced to 82RMB / KG. Overseas prices remain unchanged at 9~10.2USD / KG.


The trading price of the parts market this week was basically flat. Although the polycrystalline products are quoted but the actual transaction is not much, the overall price is flat or even small. The turnover of single crystal components is even more intense, but it cannot push up the price due to the lack of urgent orders.

At present, China’s domestic polycrystalline (270W~275W) is maintained at 1.78~1.85RMB / W, the average price is reduced to 1.80RMB / W, and the high efficiency polycrystalline (280~285W) is maintained at 1.80~1.93RMB / W. In general, the price of single crystal (290~295W) is maintained at 1.83~1.96RMB / W, the high efficiency single crystal (300~305W) is kept at 2.12~2.20RMB / W, and the high efficiency single crystal crystal (> 310W) is kept at 2.20. RMB / W. above price. The average polycrystalline price in overseas markets was lowered to 0.215~0.270USD / W, the average price was lowered to 0.216USD / W, and the high-efficiency polycrystalline correction range was 0.220~0.275USD / W. Usually, the single crystal remained at 0.2420.360 USD / W, High-efficiency single crystals are maintained at 0.265 to 0.390 USD / W.


This week, the battery market is still focused on high-efficiency products, while domestic and foreign single-crystal PERC batteries are out of stock. Polycrystalline products have been able to stabilize prices due to increased demand. The visibility of global demand continues to rise and it is estimated that December will be better than November.

At present, the price of ordinary polycrystalline batteries in mainland China is 0.8~0.85RMB / W, the average single crystal price is 1~1.06RMB / W, the high efficiency single crystal is 1.12~1.17RMB / W, and the high efficiency single crystal (> 21.5% )slightly increased. Increase to 1.2~1.25RMB / W, the average price is raised to 1.22RMB / W. The price of double-sided battery is raised to 1.25~1.30RMB / W. The foreign general polycrystal is kept at 0.095~0.130USD / W, the general single crystal is kept at 0.121~0.129USD / W, high-efficiency single crystal is adjusted to 0.145~0.165USD / W, and the ultra-high efficiency single crystal (> 21.5%) is raised to 0.16~0.172USD / W.

Polysilicon price fluctuations slow down

This week, the domestic polysilicon quality materials price range was 8.18 to 82,000 yuan / ton, the average price fell to 81,600 yuan / ton, down 0.85%. The mainstream price of polysilicon wafers is 2.08-2.20 yuan/piece, and the average price remains unchanged at 2.12 yuan/piece. The mainstream price of monocrystalline silicon wafers is 3.00-3.10 yuan per piece, and the average price is 3.05 yuan per piece per week, down 0.65%.

Domestic polysilicon prices fell slightly this week. The mainstream trading of different grades of silicon materials is as follows: the mainstream trading range of special grade materials is 8.18-82,000 yuan / ton, and the mainstream trading volume of first grade dense materials is 77-800 yuan / ton. Mainstream transactions are expected to be between 7.4 and 77,000 yuan / ton. The new volume this week is mainly the December order. Demand pessimism led to a continued decline in the price of silicon materials in the third round of this year. However, the price cuts of various companies have tightened. The main reason is that according to the current market price, most domestic enterprises are striving to survive the cost, and the space for price reduction is extremely limited.

As of this week, only one company has not resumed normal production, and another silicon material company has chosen to stop production and maintenance, and to stop losses in time to avoid cost reduction. As of the end of November, a total of 17 domestic enterprises were put into production, 24 fewer than the beginning of the year. In November, domestic polysilicon production was about 20,900 tons, down 0.48% from the previous month. The main reason was that Yichang CSG, Erdos, Inner Mongolia Dongli and Huanghe Hydropower were repaired by almost every year. In the month, monthly production decreased by 2,000 tons compared to normal production. In Xinjiang, which was put into operation at the end of October, Xinjiang Poly GCL, Inner Mongolia Tongwei and Xinjiang Daquan, released about 500 tons in November, which has little impact on the overall domestic supply. As a result, total domestic polysilicon production declined in November.

China’s photovoltaic glass exports are growing rapidly

China has become the world’s largest producer of photovoltaic glass. In addition to meeting the domestic market demand, China’s photovoltaic glass exports have also grown rapidly.

According to the statistics of China Photovoltaic Industry Association, in January 2016, China’s photovoltaic glass exports to Japan, the United States, Europe and other international markets, the number of about 129,900 tons, accounting for about one-third of total photovoltaic glass production, 7.74 year-on-year. If PV glass is exported in the form of PV modules, the export volume will far exceed this ratio. At the same time, China’s PV glass imports in January 2016 were only 934 tons. According to statistics, in 2015, 93% of the world’s crystalline silicon battery modules use photovoltaic glass produced in China.

From the installed capacity of PV modules, from 2010 to 2014, the global PV module installed capacity grew at an annual rate of 28.2%, from 17.2GW in 2010 to 46.5GW in 2014. In the same period, the compound annual growth rate for China’s PV modules was 106.9%, from 0.6GW in 2010 to 10.6GW in 2014.

In terms of PV module production, from 2010 to 2014, the global compound annual growth rate of PV module production was 21.1%, from 22.3GW in 2010 to 48.1GW in 2014. In the same period, China’s PV module production increased from 10.8GW in 2010, and in 2014 it was 34.5GW, with a compound annual growth rate of 33.7%.

As mentioned above, as the global installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation and the annual production of photovoltaic modules continue to grow steadily in the coming years, the demand for photovoltaic glass will continue to grow.

With its reliability, safety, versatility and resource adequacy, photovoltaic energy has become one of the world’s most recognized renewable energy sources in the context of accelerating global consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Become the main pillar of the future global power supply. In the decade from 2005 to 2015, the annual compound growth rate of global PV installed capacity was about 42%. According to the prediction of the Joint Research Center of the European and American Commissions, by 2050, photovoltaic power generation will account for 25% of global power generation, to 2100. This ratio may increase to 64%.

Lithium-ion battery safety test

After the lithium-ion battery is produced, it needs to carry out a series of tests before reaching the consumer to ensure the safety of the battery and reduce the safety hazard.

1.Impact test

After the battery is fully charged, place it on a flat surface and place a 15.8 mm diameter steel column vertically in the center of the battery. Freely drop 9.1 kg from the height of 610 mm and place it on the steel column above the battery. The battery cannot ignite or explode.

2. Short circuit test

After the battery is fully charged, short the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a wire with a resistance of no more than 50mΩ. Test the surface temperature of the battery. The maximum temperature of the battery surface is 140 °C. The battery cover is open and the battery does not ignite or explode.

3. Extrusion test

Place the fully charged battery on a flat surface, apply a pressure of 13 ± 1 KN with a hydraulic cylinder, and then squeeze the battery with a 32 mm diameter steel bar. Once the extrusion pressure reaches the maximum stop extrusion, the battery will not ignite. Do not explode.

4. Overcharge test

The battery is fully charged 1C, and the overcharge test is performed according to 3C overcharge 10V. When the battery is overcharged, the voltage rises to a certain voltage for a while. When the battery is close to a certain time, the battery voltage rises rapidly. When it rises to a certain limit, the battery is very high. The cover is pulled down and the voltage drops to 0V, and the battery does not catch fire or explode.

5. Temperature cycle test

Lithium-ion battery temperature cycling test is used to simulate the safety of lithium-ion batteries during repeated transportation to low-temperature and high-temperature environments during lithium-ion battery transportation. Test with fast and extreme temperature changes. After the test, the sample should not ignite, explode or leak.

6. Acupuncture test

Place the fully charged battery on a flat surface and pierce the battery radially with a 3 mm diameter steel needle. The test battery will not ignite or explode.

The market share of the crystal market will soon stabilize before the end of 2020

Among the exports of all single crystal modules in the first three quarters of 2018, the total export volume was 300W, 345W and 340W, with exports of 1,241 MW, 1,072 MW and 955 MW respectively. The top five exporters of these three categories are as follows:

In the Middle East and Australia, Jinko Energy has received orders for parts for large power plants, supplying 340-345W single crystal components, enabling Jingke to become the export champion of 300/340 / 345W single crystal components in 2018, followed by Longji. In addition, due to the use of single crystal modules in large power stations in the Middle East and Australia, the market share of single crystals in these two markets in 2018 is higher than the global average. In the parts exported to the Middle East by China in June this year, the proportion of single crystals was as high as 66.6%.

Another market worthy of attention is Europe. The European market is entering a recovery phase. After the MIP ended on September 3, China’s monthly exports to Europe increased by 34%, mainly due to the increase in exports of monocrystalline silicon modules.

In addition, since the two major markets in Europe and the United States were affected by trade barriers in the past, many components were provided by overseas production capacity, and China’s component exports could not fully reflect the market’s single polycrystalline market. China’s wafer production capacity accounts for more than 97% of global production. Therefore, analyzing the export sales of Chinese silicon wafers can more accurately determine the proportion change of the single polysilicon market.

According to EnergyTrend, China’s wafer exports have declined slightly since 2018, but the proportion of monocrystalline silicon wafers has been on the rise since 2Q18, close to 50% and is expected to rise. The market share of the crystal market is about to stabilize, and the single crystal may reverse its market share by the end of 2020.

Advantages and disadvantages of polyester material

Polyester has excellent shape characteristics. Polyester yarns or fabrics can be used for a long time after being washed several times in use. Polyester is the simplest of the three synthetic fibers and is relatively inexpensive. In addition, it is durable, flexible, non-deformable, corrosion resistant, insulating, easy to clean and dry. There are many types of polyester fabrics. In addition to woven pure polyester fabrics, there are many products that are blended or interwoven with various textile fibers. The following are the advantages and disadvantages of polyester materials:

Polyester material advantages

1, good flexibility

The elasticity is close to that of wool, and when it is stretched by 5% to 6%, it can be almost completely recovered. The wrinkle resistance is superior to other fibers, that is, the fabric is not wrinkled, and the dimensional stability is good. The modulus of elasticity is 22 to 141 cN/dtex, which is 2 to 3 times higher than that of nylon.

2. Synthetic fiber fabric has good heat resistance and thermoplasticity

3. Good light resistance, light resistance is second only to acrylic

4. Good chemical resistance

Acid and alkali are not much damaged, and they are not afraid of mold and insects.

5. High strength and elastic recovery

It is durable, wrinkle-free and non-iron.

6. Good water absorption

Polyester material disadvantage

Poor dyeability

1.There is no specific staining gene, dyeing is difficult, and the dyeability is poor, but the color fastness after dyeing is very good and it is not easy to fade.

2. Poor resistance to melting

The anti-melting property is poor. If it is exposed to holes such as Mars and soot, it is easy to form holes. Avoid wearing cigarettes and sparks when wearing. The hot base can decompose it.

3. Easy to play

One of the synthetic fiber products, after a period of use, will pilling.

4. Poor hygroscopicity

Polyester fabric, poor hygroscopicity, wearing a stuffy feeling, easy to bring static electricity, contaminated with dust, but it is easy to dry after cleaning, the wet strength is almost no drop, no deformation, wearability is very good.

The difference between polyester material and nylon material

Polyester, also known as polyester fiber. The characteristics are good gas permeability and moisture wicking, as well as strong acid and alkali resistance and UV resistance.


Nylon, also known as polyamide fiber. The advantages are high strength, high wear resistance, high chemical resistance, good deformation resistance and aging resistance; the disadvantage is that the hand feel is hard.

Polyamide fiber

The difference between polyester material and nylon material:

Polyester (polyester fiber)

1. Mechanical properties have high breaking strength

The elongation is large; the initial mold height is high; the elastic recovery is good, the fabric is stiff, the wear resistance is good, and the dimensional stability is good.

2. Optical properties

Good light fastness, second only to nylon

3. Thermal properties

Melting height 255-265 ° C; good heat resistance and thermal stability

4. Acid resistance is not resistant to alkali, not mildew

5. Hygroscopic dyeing is poor

W = 0.4%; normal temperature dyeing cannot be used. Easy to get static electricity, poor stain resistance

6. Density: 138g/cm3


Mechanical properties

The breaking strength and buckling strength are higher and the elongation is larger; the initial lifting mold is lower and the breaking work is larger; the elasticity is good, the wear resistance is good, and the shape retaining property and the straightness of the fabric are poor.

2. Poor light resistance

3. Thermal properties

Poor heat resistance; safe use temperature: less than 93 ° C (nylon 6), less than 130 ° C (nylon 66); melting point: 215 ° C (nylon 6), 250 ° C (nylon 66)

4. Alkali resistance and acid resistance

5. Hygroscopic dyeability W = 4.5%, better than polyester

6. Small density: 1.14 g/cm3

Classification of polyester fabrics

Polyester fabric is a kind of chemical fiber fabric used in life. Its biggest advantage is that it has good wrinkle resistance and shape retention. Therefore, it is suitable for outdoor clothing such as jacket clothing, various bags and tents. Next, sungzu Xiaobian gave everyone a general knowledge of polyester fabrics.


What is polyester fabric?

Polyester is an important variety in synthetic fibers and is the trade name of polyester fiber in China.

It is a fiber-forming polymer prepared by esterification or transesterification and polycondensation of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG). – Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), fibers made by spinning and post-treatment.

Polyester: short fiber, drawn wire, textured yarn, decorative filament, industrial filament and various differential fibers

1. According to physical properties: high, medium and low strength medium extension type, high modulus type, high strength and high modulus type

2. According to processing requirements: cotton, wool, hemp, silk

3. According to the purpose: clothing, cotton, decorative, industrial

4. According to function: cationic dyeable, moisture absorbing, flame retardant, colored, anti-pilling, antistatic

5. According to the fiber section: shaped wire, hollow wire.

Second, the filament fabric

1. Primary silk: undrawn yarn, semi-pre-oriented yarn, pre-oriented yarn, highly oriented yarn

2. Stretched wire: drawn wire, fully drawn wire, full wire

3. Deformed silk: conventional textured yarn, tensile textured yarn, air textured yarn.

In fact, the Shang family solar folding backpack series also uses polyester fabrics, which have good waterproof performance.Taobao shop and Aliwang shop are available for sale!

December wafer price rose

In December, the order price of silicon materials, whether it is a silicon material factory or a silicon wafer factory, is not reconciled, and the overall price continues to stalemate. From the unexpected rise of downstream polycrystalline batteries, the price of silicon wafers should keep rising in December, while the demand for single crystals is stable, but the overseas trade price is slightly lower than domestic prices. The concentration of the single crystal is higher and the subsequent supply will continue to increase. It is estimated that the price of intensive materials will be reduced by a few dollars in December. The difference between dense materials and broccoli will be further reduced. At present, the price of overseas parts has remained stable. However, the transaction has increased significantly. This indicates that there was no further decline or even a rebound in market demand in December. The transaction price is still between 8.3-9 US dollars per kilogram.

Component price

Although the price of battery chips has risen and the cost of components has increased, the price of components at the end of this year has been agreed and will not change in the short term. Demand for front-runners will be delayed in January next year, as well as inventory trends before the Lunar New Year, orders should not be too deserted. However, demand is expected to weaken significantly after the Lunar New Year. From the recent quotation of parts factories, the price of parts will continue to decline slowly in the first quarter of next year.

Battery price

The battery tablet began negotiations on the price of December this week. Judging from the current quotation, in addition to the traditional single crystal battery, the price of various battery chips has almost completely increased.

Until December, PERC batteries are still in short supply. In the case that it is difficult to find at home and abroad, the price of more than 21.5% double-sided single crystal PERC battery rose from 1.25 yuan per watt in November to 1.28 yuan, an increase of 21.5% or more. The single-sided single-crystal PERC battery price increase is more obvious, from 1.2 yuan per watt to 1.25 yuan. Although the price of the PERC battery has risen significantly, the actual transaction price is still lingering between the buyer and the seller, and has not yet reached the quotation level. In the case that high-efficiency battery chips are still scarce, it is expected that follow-up will be sold at the quotation level.

Overseas prices have also risen together. Especially at the end of the Taiwan market, the demand for popular goods is very strong. The price of a single crystal PERC battery is 0.168-0.172 US dollars per watt.

Not only is the demand for single crystal PERC hot, but the supply is slightly tight in the near term due to the continuous decline in operating rates. Battery manufacturers increased the price of polycrystalline batteries in December. Domestic prices have reached 0.88 yuan per watt, overseas prices. Then hope to rise to more than $0.107. At present, the component factory has not accepted the rise of polycrystalline batteries, and the actual situation in the next few days is expected to be clearer.

Wafer price

This week, the price of overseas wafers continued to decline due to the exchange rate. At present, the order price is mostly between 0.265 and 0.268 US dollars per piece. However, due to the stable overall demand, the price at the beginning of December is further limited. On the other hand, due to the growing demand for polysilicon, coupled with rising battery prices, silicon wafers are also eager to raise prices, but the current supply and demand balance is not sufficient considering the final operating rate of silicon wafers. In this case, once the price increase may stimulate some production to increase again, the high and low prices may rise in the short term, but the overall average price should not increase significantly. At present, the demand for monocrystalline silicon wafers is good, and the price in December has remained basically unchanged.

Influence of temperature change on Portable Solar Generator battery and solution

The Portable Solar Generator battery is the protector of the device, and it also needs to be maintained while it protects the device. Under normal circumstances, UPS battery technology requires a design life of 3 to 5 years, but temperature changes will also affect the battery life of the Portable Solar Generator.

The effect of temperature changes on the battery:

Portable Solar Generator batteries are very sensitive to temperature, which affects battery operation, life, discharge capacity and floating voltage. Continued commercial ambient temperatures will cause the floating charge flow to increase, and internal heat will increase water loss too quickly, eventually leading to loss of control and battery damage. According to the technical requirements, the ambient temperature should be controlled within the range of 20 to 25 degrees. When the temperature exceeds 25 degrees, the temperature per 10 liters of battery life is lowered by -50 °C. Therefore, when the ambient temperature is not 25 degrees, the temperature per liter is 1 degree, and the battery floating voltage should be reduced by 3 Mv. If it is lower than 20 degrees, the temperature is reduced by less than 10 degrees, and the temperature is quotient – half, and the voltage of the buck battery should be 3 Mv each time. The battery life is 3 – 5 years, so the ambient temperature is below 20 degrees to 25 degrees and the service life will be shortened – half. As can be seen from the above, battery life is shortened and prematurely ineffective, and the ambient temperature is a deadly killer for the battery.


Install air conditioning equipment, strictly control the ambient temperature of the equipment room, so that the equipment room is always maintained at 20 degrees -25 degrees, thus ensuring the battery to reach a real service life.